Deleting your browsing history is one way to clear your browser history but it doesn't clear the information that companies have already collected about you.
Most website these days save cookies on your machine and this is how advertisers and companies track and store data they have collected about you.
Some services and websites like google allow you to delete certain information they have on you for example your map acticvity if you have location history turned on.
Its best to not give too much information about your self when on the web. Unless you are using a trusted source.
The information saved by your browser
Everytime you download a file, the browser keeps a log of the files downloaded. Usually this is done to help you easily locate the files that have been download. Its good practice to always clear this log especially if you download sensitive documents.
To improve performance most browser will cache files when browsing websites. This is done to avoid download the same files over and over again. This helps with speed. Clearing this cached files will help with your device performance
Most website now store a cookie so that they recognise you next time you visit thier website. Advertising companies use this cookies to track you and show your similar adverts when you visit different website. These Cookies are also used to keep you loogged in on some webiste and some companies use them for the shopping cart.
Most browsers have a built in password manager. Everytime you fill in a password you will see that your device will ask you to save the password. This may sound convient but its also additional information that your browser know about you. These is the same for autofill form data eg your First name, last name, email etc
These include the permissions you give websites, like showing or stopping pop-ups, allowing use of a camera and/or microphone and more.
Other websites have thier own browsing history logs. This helps them know your interests so they can suggest poducts to your later. An example is Amazon, thier will record the products you view so they can show them to your later.
So you can't hide. Even when you use Incognito or clear your browising history; your Internet Service Provider (ISP) knows the content your are browsing.So, no matter what you do on the internet, your ISP knows it. Unless you use a reliable VPN (Virtual Private Network).